I'm specifically referring to the integrated circuit, which Jack Kilby first created in 1958 at Texas Instruments. He won the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics for the invention, which basically now runs all computers everywhere.
"... and 3D printing"
This refers to the "selective laser sintering" process developed at UT-Austin in the mid-1980s. (The program was sponsored by DARPA, the folks who also brought you the Internet.) Modern commercial 3D-printers usually work by fabricating thin slices of material one at a time, but SLS came first.
UT archaeologist Linda Schele led a 1973 working group that made dramatic breakthroughs in deciphering Mayan writing, starting with deciphering the dynastic list of the kings of Palenque. She then ran the Maya Hieroglyphic Workshop at UT-Austin, starting in 1977, where scholars met to share and discuss further discoveries, not just regarding Mayan linguistics, but their life, culture, and history.
This is Texas Instruments again. Yes, before the handheld calculator, there were desktop models, and mainframe computers (and, for that matter, the abacus), but the first handheld model -- the thing you and I would actually call a calculator -- was the "Cal Tech" prototype developed at Texas Instruments (yes, that's Jack Kilby again) in 1967. It could do the four basic arithmetic operations, and output results to a paper tape.
This is a 2013 discovery by William Sager at the University of Houston. He presented conclusive evidence that Tamu Massif, a massive underwater feature (about the size of Great Britain) in the Pacific Ocean, is actually a single inactive volcano. To be more precise, it is the largest "shield volcano" we know of -- there are larger "igneous features", but we don't know if those are single volcanos or conglomerates of more than one volcano.
More specifically, "lithium-ion batteries", some version of which is almost certainly powering your cell phone right now. In 1980, UT professor John B. Goodenough demonstrated, with Koichi Mizushima, that you could make a lithium battey using lithium cobalt oxide. This opened the door for commercial lithium-ion batteries, leading eventually to the batteries now used in everything from cordless drills to electric cars.
"Discovered folic acid"
Folic acid, AKA "B9", is a crucial vitamin for your diet, especially if you're pregnant. (Low levels of folate can lead to neural tube defects in the baby.) It had been identified in the 1930s as a nutrient required to prevent anemia during pregnancy, but it wasn't isolated until 1941, when a UT-Austin team led by Esmond Emerson Snell extracted the substance from spinach. Snell discovered a number of other so-called B-vitamins, and more than half of all known vitamins have been discovered by applying his microbiological techniques.
In 2003, Dr. Hedy Emdonds UT's Marine Science Institute discovered deep-sea thermal vents in the Arctic Ocean for the first time, in the Gakkel Ridge above Greenland. Subsequent research with robotic submersibles have found "bizarre 'mats' of microbial communities containing a half-dozen or more new species" living around the vents.
Some Slightly Political Words About the Sign
I made this sign after attending the March for Science here in Austin. Seeing all the scientists (and science enthusiasts like me) there at the Texas Capitol got me to thinking.
I think a lot of Texans dismiss science as something that happens somewhere else. They sneer at it as something that's only pursued by pointy-headed elites in distant, coastal ivory towers. But science happens here in Texas -- it's happening at our hospitals, it's happening at our universities. Hell, it's happening in little towns where amateurs dig up exciting new fossils. And it's been happening here a long, long time: there's a proud tradition of invention and discovery here in our state.
So: sneer at science all you want. But know that you are dismissing the brilliance, and the hard work, and the breakthroughs of your fellow Texans. You're turning your back on some of the proudest and most memorable achievements of this state.
Maybe people can find some twisted way to reckon "I'm proud of Texas" with "science is fake". Maybe they can cheer on their college football team while scoffing at what Texas universities do for knowledge as a waste of money. Maybe they can get life-saving medical care while forgetting the Texas doctors that helped make it possible. But I'm hoping this sign gets across that Texas does amazing work in science, and that being proud of Texas should mean being proud of the work we do.
Are there other things missing from the list? Let me know in the comments.
_______  Hat-tip to Cindy Page for pointing me towards A&M's cloning programs.  Kudos to Melinda Chow for pointing out this one.  I can't get over how awesome this name is. Surely it's a name for a scienctist in some 1940s pulp novel, right?